As explained in Section 3.5, a claim is a statement regarding any positive or negative effect of CI on the software development phenomena. However, there are some mentions of the negative impact of CI regarding the pull request life cycle. What is bug life cycle ? Table 10 presents the codes, the number of occurrences, and the primary studies in which the codes appear. Importantly, it is a community effort, pushed by people involved in the development of very prominent and popular electronic structure codes, representing a wide spectrum of the community. To justify the usefulness of collecting IDE events, and provide context to our proposal, we introduce in this section some preliminary definitions required to understand concepts such as development actions, development sessions, development actions repository and development profiles. For example, the category “Software development process risks and mitigation advice” includes this risk: “Application of agile practices causes problems in distributed development because of the degree of interaction between stakeholders and number of face-to-face meetings needed. In addition, (iii) a few number of studies (P49, P52, P60, P69) analyze both projects and self-described declarations, like interviews or survey. The second most frequent criterion is checking whether subject projects perform automatic builds. CI also encourages best practices of automated test ranging from tests within private builds to functional tests on the cloud.
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Although we observe in RQ1 that automated builds is a common criterion to check whether CI is employed by subject projects, the theme “build patterns” has only 7 occurrences from 4 primary studies. “We observe that in 54% (47/87) of our projects, PRs have a larger lifetime after adopting CI.”. For classified information, it specifies that the entities or individuals receiving information must be certified or have security clearance, and makes provisions for granting temporary or permanent security clearance to individuals within these entities. Proprietary companies are also more likely to have the resources to hire top developers. “One reason developers gave for using CI is that it makes integration easier. Efficiency when using CI (12 occurrences in 11 studies). Moreover, studies also mention that CI can ease the practice of code integration (5 occurrences in 5 papers). This makes sense because then the team can get some momentum. Software testers can perform execution of these test cases to highlight any issues to the development team as early as possible. On the other hand, CI is also reported to add extra complexity to software development. Some keep it mostly the same, but add useful utilities, while others make the operating system nearly unrecognizable (which is made possible by the extreme customizability of open source code). “Open source projects that plan adopt CI should be aware that the adoption of CI will not necessarily deliver merged PRs more quickly. Therefore, solely relying on the fact that build logs are generated from a CI server does not necessarily imply that the derived observations can be associated with the adoption of CI practices.
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The “Integration Patterns” theme consists of claims related to commits and pull requests, as shown in Table 12. Some primary studies report that CI adoption increases the number of pull requests submissions (P81). There are a number of careers that require a similar skill set and educational background, like computer hardware engineering, computer systems architecture, and computer programming. Figure 4 (a) shows the number of criteria considered in the primary studies to identify whether a project uses CI. Figure 5 shows the produced codes organized into 6 overarching themes. To answer RQ2, we collect the claims from our primary studies and proceed with the thematic synthesis to produce the codes and themes regarding the claims. Regarding the studies that investigate build logs only (e.g., build logs from TravisCI), it would also be desirable to be more restrictive regarding these logs, since not every build log from TravisCI may come from a project that properly employs CI. 4.2 RQ1: What are the existing criteria to identify whether a software project uses CI? These are the basic clarifications you should make before specifying any terms in the brief. Nevertheless, not everything seems to be positive in terms of development activities. On the other hand, as the pull-based development can attract the interest of external contributors, and hence, increase the projects workload, CI may help in other aspects, e.g., delivering more functionalities to end users.” (p. On the other hand, 26 (25.7%) of the primary studies used two criteria, while 16 (15.8%) of the projects and another 16 (15.8%) of them used one and three criteria, respectively.
One respondent added ‘To be more confident when merging PRs.’ ” (p. ” along with a definition of CI could help such studies to gauge the quality the CI practices that are implemented by the subjects. CI practices highlighted by Fowler fowler2006 . To answer this research question, we analyze in the primary studies which criteria (e.g., CI practices or attributes) were considered when describing or selecting the analyzed projects-For example, how are the projects using CI deemed as such? The results of the experiments show that this approach simplifies the modeling process in an agile and creative manner by using mind maps, and facilitates the negotiation process related to the variability analysis of a domain. CI facilitates the developer integration process. These studties mention that CI can make integration easier (P97, P100), reduce integration stress (P59), and even support a faster integration (P79, P102). They support Growl notifications, so you can read each new message alongside other notifications when they pop up in the corner of your screen. The support to multi-environment tests is also mentioned as a support to a “real-world environment”. “After some (expected) initial adjustments, the amount (and potentially the quality) of automated tests seems to increase.” (p.
As seen in Table III, we have more than 300 million distinct code comments with the large amount of comments in C code. I assume the most critical parts of the system have been covered by test cases.” (p. Several primary studies have claims regarding the effects of CI on development activities. We observe 4 positive effects of CI on productivity and efficiency, confidence, satisfaction, and reduction in the workload. There are several mentions in the primary studies claiming an increase in productivity. CI has positive effects on developers’ productivity and workload, improving her/his confidence and satisfaction. We found 125 claims regarding the effects of CI in 38 out of 101 papers (37.6% of studies). Instead, they are studies based on interviews, surveys, companies, or other kind of data, e.g., build logs; (ii) some of the studies present experience reports without further details regarding how projects adopt the CI practices. We define, through literature reviews and expert interviews, a list of tasks to analyze large sets of Git metadata. The alignment to these factual APIs/projects/developers are then compared with randomly chosen sets of APIs/projects/developers of the same size. Table 9 shows the claims made in these primary studies, the development activity to which these claims are related, and the ID of the primary studies supporting the claims. Thus it can help new developers, managers, and testers understand the history of development without needing to dig into a large pile of unfamiliar source code.