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They also tend to work on core platforms or common infrastructure (as opposed to the ones who make changes to the specific components of the product or service). Developers who found ConE not so useful: these developers are the ones who work on small micro services or small scale products and typically work in smaller teams. Some criticism stated that this will lead to software constantly crashing, however, Shore argues that the opposite is the case, as software defects are quickly found (either during development or user acceptance testing) and thus can be easily fixed. The test gave a p-value which is less than 0.05, and thus we can say that the distributions are significantly different. As Microsoft is a huge company and most of the users of the ConE service are organizationally distant from the interviewers, the risk of response bias is very minimal. For instance, it has helped reduce selection bias in studies of WFH since almost everyone has to work from home, and it has helped researchers identify and understand the concrete challenges faced by developers while working remotely. The company started working from home in March 2020 around the same time when Amazon, Facebook, Google, and Microsoft started remote work due to the COVID-19 pandemic. To answer the research questions, we distributed two surveys to full-time software engineers at a large software company in the United States.

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One specific approach might have been successfully implemented in both large and small organizations. ”For me no, I generally have context on all other ongoing PRs and work that might cause merge issues. Many developers choose instead to work in academic research as computer and information research scientists. Thus, we investigated the effects of WFH on teams and answered the following research questions. 111We renumbered the questions for this paper. In this paper we present a concurrent edit detection system that has been deployed across 234 repositories in Microsoft. We refer to this survey throughout the paper as the “WFH-Survey.” We analyze data collected from the exploratory survey that was aimed to better understand team culture factors and changes in communication and interaction practices. The first, an exploratory survey during the early months of the pandemic with 2,265 developer responses, revealed that many developers faced challenges reaching milestones and that their team productivity had changed. Likewise, the quality and ease of communication were commonly cited challenges. Any software development organization with similar characteristics, scale and facing similar challenges may benefit from adopting the techniques and algorithms developed as part of the ConE work. S for mobile app development then keep in mind the above 7 reasons. Many systems include streamlined features that let managers keep track of who’s doing what and the project’s progress as a whole. When they leave comments, do they keep any criticisms constructive? In April 2020, we ran a large-scale survey with the goal of understanding how developers are being affected by WFH at the large software company.

To investigate how team culture and team productivity may also have been affected, we conducted two surveys at a large software company. Evidence of practice implementation by Company B comes from self-assessment surveys. The aforementioned procedure to concentrate on the behaviour of the application, rather than its implementation detail, is also known as black-box testing, where no knowledge of the system under test is assumed. Given that Microsoft is one of the world’s largest concentration of developers and developers at Microsoft uses very diverse set of tools, frameworks, programming languages, our research and the ConE system will have a broader applicability. As ConE is deployed and found to be useful by the developers in a large and diverse (in terms of programming languages used, tools, engineering systems, geographical presence, etc) organization like Microsoft, we believe the techniques and the system has applicability beyond Microsoft. This could be a result of underestimating the pace with which service dependencies are introduced, product road maps change, and codebases are re-purposed in large scale organizations. There are recent papers that already began investigating the impacts of this unique work setting. In this section we describe the outlook and future work. The second survey (Team-Survey, Section II-B) was built on the first survey and collected quantitative data to answer RQ4, RQ5, and RQ6. The first survey (WFH-Survey, Section II-A) collected qualitative data and was used to answer RQ1, RQ2, and RQ3. We used data from the second survey to build a regression model to identify important team culture factors for modeling team productivity.

In our second survey, we conducted a quantitative analysis of the team cultural factors that emerged from our first survey to understand the prevalence of the reported changes. To answer our research questions, we conducted two surveys. Concerning internal validity, our qualitative analysis was conducted by reaching out to the developers via Microsoft Teams. Concerning external validity, the empirical analysis, design and deployment, evaluation and feedback collection are done specifically in the context of Microsoft. Employees access the software through networked computers, which in a client/server system are the clients. We also explain some of the limitations of the ConE system and how we plan to address them. We purposefully avoided deploying ConE on repositories that are under the same organization as any of the researchers involved in this work. As a result, companies are struggling to find adequately skilled computer science and engineering professionals. ”This is an awesome tool, Thank you so much for working to improve our engineering! So if he loses his job, he will not be depressed so much as that is not the only thing he invested his whole life for. Building a digital or physical prototype is one of the best ways for attracting investment, honing the product, and adding life to the business idea. The Building interest area indicates a focus on working with tools and machines, and making or fixing practical things. My own experience building a toy project that uses Google’s OAuth framework.

ConE uses heuristics like extent of overlap, presence of rarely concurrently edited files, between a pair of pull requests, to determine the possibility of conflicts. Interestingly, there were cases where some of these developers were surprised to see another active pull request, created by a different developer, from a different team sometimes, which is editing the same area of the source code as their pull request. One of the immediate goals of the ConE system is to expand its reach beyond the initial 234 on which it is enabled, and eventually on every source code repository in Microsoft. Finally, Participatory Design is an approach to design in which the people destined to use the system play a critical role in designing it schuler1993participatory . Some allow people to share documents online. Developers who found the ConE notifications useful: these are the developers who typically work on large services with distributed development teams across multiple organizations, geographies and time zones. Statistical programming packages offer a wide variety of techniques for exploring large data sets. We can use the semantic understanding in combination with the historical data about concurrent and non-concurrent edits to develop better prediction models and raise alarms when concurrent edits are problematic. Serial connections were reliable but slow, so manufacturers began using parallel connections to send multiple pieces of data simultaneously. Bin et al. performed a case study using automated trace data, along with other metrics, to determine how productivity has been affected.

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